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The Supreme Head of Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at worldwide Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad (May Almighty Allah be His helper) has appointed Alhaji (Barr.) AbdulAzeez Alatoye as the new Amir (National Head) of Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria.

This was contained in a release signed by the General Secretary of the Muslim Organization, Alhaji Abbas Iromini and made available to our correspondent. Alhaji Alatoye was hitherto the Naib Amir (Deputy National Head) South West region. He succeeds Dr. Mashhud Adenrele Fashola who has been serving in that capacity for the past 15 years.

It will be recalled that the organization held its annual national forum (Majlis Shoora) last month at Tahir Mosque Ojokoro Lagos where representatives across the country participated in the National Executive Officers’ elections.

Alhaji Alatoye, alongside with the newly approved members of the National Executive Committee will resume office on July 1, 2019.

Brief Profile of the New Amir
Born on the 13th of February, 1963, Alhaji AbdulAzeez Folorunso Alatoye had his tertiary education at the Kwara State Polytechnic, Ilorin where he bagged Unique Distinction in Accountancy in 1991. He obtained a Diploma in Law from the Executive Business School, Ikeja Lagos in 2011 and Bachelor of Laws (LLB) from the University of Bradford, the United Kingdom in 2012.

Professionally, he is an Associate Member of the Chartered Institute of Arbitrators (UK); a Fellow of the Chartered Institute of Taxation of Nigeria (CITN); Fellow of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of Nigeria and a Member of Nigeria Taxation Standard Board and Fellow of the Nigeria Institute of Management.

He is the Founder and Senior Partner of Ascension Consulting Services.

His Journey in the Jama’at
Alhaji Alatoye joined the Ahmadiyya Community through the maternal grandfather biat in 1975. In 1981, he personally signed the biat. Since then, he has been holding sensitive posts within the Jamaat. For instance, he was the Tabligh Secretary between 1982 and 1985 and Financial Secretary between 1985 and 1989 of Inisa Jamaat Osun State. At the auxiliary level, he held the post of an Internal Auditor of Majlis Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya Nigeria (Youth Wing) between 1988 and 1990.

At the National Level, Alhaji Alatoye was appointed as the Naib Jalsa Officer II (Deputy Conference Officer II) between 2009 and 2019; Naib Amir South West region (2013-2019); Treasurer (2010-2019); Vice Chairman Humanity First Nigeria (2011-2019); Chairman Sad Sala Jubilee Committee (2016-2019); Chairman South West Mosque Building Trust Fund Committee (2016-2019); Chairman Economic Empowerment and Development Committee (2014-2019), among others.

His areas of interest include Tabligh (Preaching), Holy Qur’an and Mosque Building. He is an advocate of honest service to Almighty Allah and Humanity.


Alhaji AbdulAzeez Alatoye National Amir (Head)
Alhaji Abbas O. Iromini General Secretary
Barr. Muhammad Bashir Badr Secretary Tabligh (Preaching)
Alhaj. M.M. Shittu Secretary Tarbiyat (Religious & Moral Training)
Mr. Tajudeen Oladoja Secretary Ta’lim (Education)
Alhaji Mudathir Dada Secretary Isha’at (Publication)
Engr. Imran Adeyemi Secretary Sami’ wa Basari (Audio-Video)
Alhaji Hassan Sunmonu Secretary Umur Kharijiyyah (External Affairs)
Alhaji Muslihu Ali Secretary Umur Amma (General Affairs)
Mr. Abdul Rahman Adetunji Secretary Dhiyyafat (Hospitality)
Mr. Mudathir Adefarati Secretary Mal (Finance)
Alhaji Dauda Kehinde Sokunbi Add. Secretary Mal (Finance)
Mr. Shakirudeen Abdus Salam Secretary Wasaya (Wills)
Mr. Abdul-Hakeem Akintobi Secretary Ta’limul-Quran & Waqf-Ardhi
Mr.Nafiu Taiwo Ajimoti Secretary Tahrik-Jadid
Mr. Abdul Ganiy Babalola Secretary Waqf-Jadid
Mr. Muhammad Tirmiziy Ajibike Addl. Secretary Waqf-Jadid & Nau Muba’in (For New Converts)
Builder Bashirudeen Asimiyu Towolawi Secretary Jaidad (Properties)
Alhaji Muslihudeen Ademoye Secretary Waqf-Nau
Prof. Abdur Rahman Abdullah Secretary Zira’at (Agriculture)
Mr. B.O. Ghazal Secretary Sanat-o-Tijarat (Industry and Trade)
Mr. Issa A. Shokunbi Muhassib (Accountant)
Alhaji Muheeb Lanre Idris Amin [Treasurer]
Mr. Hussein King Internal Auditor

Latest instructions from Hazrat Khalifatul Masih regarding coronavirus


On 20 March 2020, towards the end of his Friday Sermon, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih V, may Allah be his helper, issued instructions pertaining to the recent outbreak of coronavirus.

This morning [21 March 2020], in my mulaqat, Huzooraa gave insightful remarks regarding the current state of the world, the views of experts and the reaction of the general public.

Huzooraa said:

“Some Ahmadis have referred to this illness as plague. Some say that this is a sign, similar to that of the plague. Prior to the time when the plague broke out, Allah the Almighty informed the Promised Messiah, peace be upon him, regarding it. Thus, the plague served as a sign [from God].

“Then, prior to that very outbreak of plague, Allah the Almighty informed the Promised Messiahas that his followers would be protected. Thus, the plague became a sign in this manner also.

“Although, at that time, the Promised Messiahas said that it was possible that a few persons in Qadian could contract the illness – and some actually did contract the plague – however, God Almighty foretold to the Promised Messiahas as to the timeframe and manner of its outbreak. Thus, its spread was a sign.

“In spite of this, the Promised Messiahas continued to pray for the world generally that it be saved from this epidemic and beseeched Allah’s mercy.

“Neither was this coronavirus foretold, nor have I ever expressed that this is a sign that has appeared.”

After saying these words, Huzooraa paused. I was about say something, when Huzooraa continued:

“Look, in 1918, influenza broke out and even spread to India including Qadian. Countless people lost their lives. We find mention of precautionary measures prescribed by Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, for example, drinking cinnamon infused water etc. As a matter of fact, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra himself also contracted influenza and with great severity.”

Thereafter, Huzooraa proceeded towards his bookshelf and picked out the fourth volume of Tarikh-e-Ahmadiyyat. Immediately, Huzooraa found the passage he was searching for. Huzooraa said:

“Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, in fact, even wrote down his will elaborating what should be done, in case the worst was to happen to him.”

Huzooraa read out the relevant passage that spans over two to three pages. An extract from this passage is being copied below:

“An unparalleled example of The Jamaat’s service during the Influenza of 1918

After World War I, in 1918, an epidemic of influenza broke out; it was as if this outbreak caused more havoc in the world than the battlefields of the war itself. India was also greatly affected by the influenza eruption and saw deaths at an unprecedented level in a matter of days.

During the outbreak, through the guidance of Hazrat Khalifatul Masih II, may Allah be pleased with him, the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community provided great aid, service and relief for the wider public to encounter the consequences of the epidemic. Regardless of race, religion or creed, the community provided help and relief to people from every background.

Ahmadi Muslim doctors and medics not only voluntarily helped the populace in Qadian, India but from town to town and village to village they ensured medical help reached even the most isolated and deprived. Other members of the Ahmadiyya Community stepped forward and served as nurses etc.

The poor were assisted by the community through financial means and provision of supplies and food were distributed. In the days of the influenza outbreak, Ahmadi Muslim volunteers (which included Hazrat Sahibzada Mirza Bashir Ahmad) painstakingly toiled night and day, despite great difficulties, and served those in need. In some instances, when volunteers were scarce, Ahmadi volunteers who had fell ill themselves, continued to grit through and serve the ill. They would endure the pain themselves and continue treating others until their illness would cause them to drop; they had sacrificed their own rest and treatment for others.

This service was such that both friend and foe commended the sacrifice and efforts of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community. Through articles and speeches, everyone applauded and recognised the great example the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community set through their constant hard work, sacrifice and efforts in aiding those in need during the influenza outbreak of 1918.”

(Tarikh-e-Ahmadiyyat, Vol. IV, p. 208-209)

Huzooraa continued:

“These epidemics will keep happening. It is absolutely wrong to declare every such outbreak to be a divine sign. It is also wrong to say, as some do, that Ahmadis will never contract these illnesses or, for that matter, to say that ‘sincere’ Ahmadis will not catch it.

“These epidemics cannot always be made a yardstick for one’s level of faith. The will that Hazrat Musleh Maudra wrote during the Influenza outbreak started with the words: ‘I, Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmad, son of Hazrat Masih-e-Maud…’

“So it is Hazrat Musleh Maudra writing the will and mentioning that he is the son of the Promised Messiahaa. He contracted the illness and that too very severely. This clearly shows that contracting a certain illness is no criterion for one’s faith.”

After this, Huzooraa paused again. However, I felt as though Huzooraa would continue this subject further, and so, after a second’s pause, Huzooraa said:

“Find this reference and publish it in Al Hakam so that everyone may read it and all misconceptions may be removed. If this [coronavirus] was a sign, then first and foremost, I would have announced it that it is a sign.

“For a long time now, I have been issuing instructions to take precautionary measures and medications; even when the virus had not spread outside China. If I had deemed it to be a sign, then I would have stopped everyone from taking precautionary measures.

“I have said it before and continue to say that people should follow the precautionary measures being prescribed to them by experts through authorities in respective countries.

“I have told Amir Sahib [UK], Sadr Khuddam-ul-Ahmadiyya [UK] and Humanity First that during these days, whatever is possible for the welfare and help of people should be done.

“Once you publish this extract from Tarikh-e-Ahmadiyyat, the other countries around the world will also come to know this and the amirs and sadrs of those areas can plan schemes according to this.”

This discussion came to a close with the following words:

“Instead of trying to prove it a sign at this time, Ahmadis should follow the precautionary measures advised to them for themselves, their families and mosques.

“Observing precautionary measures, they should help whoever they can. To please Allah, it is essential that one takes care of His creation and most importantly, beseech Allah the Almighty’s mercy for their own sake and for the sake of mankind.”



The Amir (National Head) of Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria, Alhaji (Barr.) Alatoye Folorunso Azeez has called on Muslims globally to enhance their level of spiritual, physical and financial sacrifices in the way of Almighty God, thereby displaying the good qualities of the early companions of Prophet Muhammad (May the Peace and Blessings of Allah be on him).

Delivering his Friday sermon at Tahir Mosque, Ojokoro Lagos, the Muslim leader emphasized that Muslims had been ordained in the Holy Qur’an to spend their time, wealth and honour as sacrifices for the progress of Islamic religion and for the betterment of humanity.

Barrister Alatoye enjoined the Muslim faithful to learn from the qualities and characters of the companions of the Holy Prophet(saw) – an on-going Friday sermon titled “Men of Excellence” by the Supreme Head of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad(May Allah be his Helper).  He requested all Muslims to emulate the spirit of sacrifice displayed by the companions.

He said: “There are avalanches of lessons to learn from the early companions of the Holy Prophet(saw).  These include, among others, the spirit of sacrifice, unbridled love for the Holy Quran and the Holy Prophet(saw) and love for mankind.  Today, the mind-set of Muslims on sacrifice have changed.  The spirit of sacrifice is decreasing on a daily basis.  People no longer donate like before.”

“As instructed by Almighty God in the Holy Quran, we must change our views on sacrifice, going forward.  We must sacrifice our life, time and wealth in the way of Allah.  We should stop hiding our wealth and property. Rather than creating an atmosphere of hatred, fighting, misunderstandings and chaos after our demise, why not sacrifice our wealth in the way of Allah?  Let us exercise our faith in terms of financial, spiritual and moral sacrifices.”

Tabligh Expeditions not only for Missionaries

Alhaji Alatoye equally called on all members of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community to improve on Tabligh expeditions (Preaching activities) of the Muslim organization.

He said it was incumbent on all members of the Community to preach to people in a polite, amiable and excellent way, thereby winning more converts.  He reiterated that Tabligh activity is for all members and not just for Missionaries.

“All companions of the Holy Prophet(saw) took preaching as a matter of priority.  We have no excuse not to preach.  This should be our primary assignment.  All members must be involved in preaching and not just the missionaries.  The reason why we cannot preach is that we refuse to learn.  We should devote time for the learning of the Holy Quran and the sunnah of the Holy Prophet(saw).”

“Our preaching methodology must be redefined.  Let us engage ourselves in the excellent recitation of the Holy Quran and talk to people in the most excellent and polite way.  The Holy Prophet(saw) invites people to Islam with good characters and behaviours.  He also showed love and affection to the entire humanity and observed Salat regularly.  These are the good qualities of the companions which must also be displayed by us all.”

“Above all, we should demonstrate unflinching support and love for the Holy Prophet(saw) and for the Khalifah.  Some of us love our family members and wealth more than the Holy Prophet(saw) and the Khalifah.  We should remember we will leave everything behind in this world.  Let us all prepare for the hereafter.  Let us love the Holy Prophet(saw) over everything and emulate his good deeds.  May Allah make it easy for us.”

CORONAVIRUS : Ahmadiyya Head Advises on Precautionary Measures


Following the outbreak of the Coronavirus, the World Head of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community, the Fifth Khalifa (Caliph), His Holiness, Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad has instructed Ahmadi Muslims to adopt all measures recommended by health authorities to help curb the spread of the virus.

Speaking at the Baitul Futuh Mosque in London, during his Friday Sermon delivered on 6 March 2020, His Holiness said that it was appropriate to avoid large gatherings during the current outbreak and instructed Ahmadi Muslims to refrain from attending their Mosques if they developed any symptoms associated with the coronavirus.

Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said:

“It is very important to act upon the precautionary measures that are being announced [by the health authorities]. Large gatherings should be avoided and those coming to the Mosque should also take special care. If anyone shows any signs of a slight fever, flu or body-ache, sneezing or other symptoms then they should not come to the Mosque. Mosques have rights upon the people that visit them. It is the right of the Mosque that no one should attend who can affect other attendees of the Mosque with a contagious illness. Those with contagious diseases should especially take care to avoid Mosques.”

His Holiness also advised that people should be extremely conscious of hygiene at all times. He said that hands should be regularly washed and said that Islamic teachings if followed properly, established a very high standard of cleanliness.

Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said:

“Doctors are advising that hands should be washed regularly and hand sanitizers should be used. If one’s hands are dirty, they should avoid contact with the face until clean. This should be followed but, regardless, for us as Muslims, if someone prays five times a day, they will wash themselves properly five times a day through ablution and amongst other things, will be running clean water through their hands and nose, which ensures personal hygiene is maintained at all times and will reduce the need for hand sanitizers that are already reported to be in short supply.”

His Holiness said that Islam emphasizes that within a Mosque, one should avoid all things that negatively affect others and uphold its rightful etiquette. In fact, His Holiness said that the Holy Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessing be upon him) said that anything that smells bad should not be brought into the Mosque.
His Holiness also said that some governments and organizations have now advised members of the public to avoid shaking hands with others. In light of this, His Holiness said that whilst shaking hands increases a bond of brotherhood between people, it is better to avoid it under the current circumstances.

His Holiness also noted that whilst Muslims have often been criticized for avoiding shaking hands with the opposite gender, many people, in general, are now preferring to not shake hands with other people and are questioning the Western conventions of greeting through physical contact. He said when Muslims avoid handshakes they do so politely so that the feelings of the other person are not hurt but now in the wider public people are abruptly rejecting the extended hands of other people.

His Holiness also urged Ahmadi Muslims to pray for the world and said that the world should realise that it must turn towards its Creator.

Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad said:

“Allah the Almighty knows best how widespread this virus will become. It has been seen that in this era since the advent of the Promised Messiah (peace be upon him) there has been an exponential increase in pandemics, earthquakes, storms, and natural disasters. If this virus is a sign of the displeasure of God, then there is a great need to turn towards God in order to safeguard oneself from the effects of the virus.”



Photo Story of Amir Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria visitation to Akwanga, Nasarawa State.

Photo Story of Amir Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria inspection of Hadeeqa-E-Ahmad in Nasarawa State.



Barely forty-eight hours after attending the National workshop of the Majlis Ansarullah at Ilaro, the Respected Amir sahib went to pay a courtesy call to the Executive Governor of Nassarawa State, Engineer Abdullah A. Sule at the State capital in Lafia, Nassarawa State.

On the Amir’s entourage were the Naib Amir, Finance and Admin, Engr Mufadhil Bankole Sahib, Naib Amir Tabligh and Tajneed, Dr. Busari Abdul Lateef, the former Naib Amir for the  North, Dr. Habeeb Yekeen, the Secretary External Affairs, Comrade Hassan Sunmonu, Nassarawa Circuit President, Brother Jubrin Ahmad, Nassarawa  Circuit Missionary, Muallim Akintola Misbahuddeen, Abuja Circuit President, Alhaj Sanusi Ahmed, Central Mubaligh of Abuja, Mukarram  Maulvi Nasir Mahmood, Former Abuja Circuit President, Alhaj Atanda, Abuja Circuit Missionary, Muallim Nuhu Abdus Salaam, Naib Sadr North for Majlis Khuddam, Brother Ajimoti Abdul Mujeeb, and many others.

The Amir Sahib and members of his entourage were received by His Excellency in one of the conference rooms inside the Government House. The meeting with the Governor started with the opening prayer which was led by the respected Amir Sahib and recitation of the Holy Qur’an by Muallim Nuhu Abdus Salaam. The reporter did the introduction of Amir’s entourage and the Amir gave a glowing address which the Executive Governor and members of the State Executive Council listened to with rapt attention.

In his address, the respected Amir Sahib appreciated the Executive Governor for granting our request to pay him a courtesy call despite his very tight schedule and the short notice. Amir Sahib appreciated, as well, all the previous Governors of the state for granting Ahmadiyya Jama’at permission to operate in the state as a religious body.

The respected Amir Sahib informed the august gathering that out of the 5 Ahmadiyya- owned secondary schools in the country, three of them were located in Nasarawa State and they were the Ahmadiyya College at Umaisha, Ahmadiyya Community Secondary School Ara and Ahmadiyya Community Secondary school at Onda, all within the state.

Further addressing the Executive Governor and members of the state cabinet, the Amir highlighted the beliefs of the Ahmadis as the same with the mainstream Muslims as we believe in one Allah; the Holy Prophet Muhammad, on whom be eternal peace; as Khattaman Nabiyyin; we uphold the five pillars of Islam and the six articles of faith. That the difference would be in the areas of understanding and interpretation of some injunctions and verses of the Holy Quran. He reiterated that the founder of the Jamaat, Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad, Alayhi salaam was an obedient follower of the Holy Prophet Muhammad, Sallallahu Alayhi was salaam.

Amir Sahib informed the audience about the focal point of Khilafat e- Ahmadiyya which was to establish and preach peace all over the world as Islam abhors violence but permits self-defense. He referred to what His Holiness had done and still doing; going to the Capitol Hill in the USA, House of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Congress in  Germany and Canada and other world powers where he told them to embrace peace and jettison violence and manufacturing of arsenals and war ammunition.  He advised that we should see ourselves as brothers and not as enemies. He said Islam did not allow any Muslim to act wrongly or misbehave to any Non-Muslim on account of a difference of religion.


Some of our social and humanitarian activities carried out under the umbrella of the Humanity First; such as education for all, light for all, health for all, portable water for all, disaster recovery, the welfare of the internally displaced persons, orphanage, etc. were mentioned by the Amir Sahib to the Governor.

The respected Amir Sahib presented three requests to the Executive Governor which were: one; an invitation of his Excellency to our National annual Jalsa Salana at Ilaro which holds in December every year and two; an invitation to our international Jalsa Salana at London which holds in August of every year and three; the strong support by the Governor as our spiritual worldwide leader was billed to visit the country in 2021. Amir Sahib wanted the Governor’s support in terms of facilitation in reaching out to Government departments and Ministries and possibly making the Presidency, the Senate President and the Speaker of the House of Representatives accord His Holiness the respect he deserves which other bigger countries have accorded him. That they all need to listen and learn from the peaceful message of His Holiness which other countries have benefitted from.  Amir Sahib prayed profusely for the success of the Governor in his administration and for peace in the state. He prayed for the security of lives and properties in the state for the Government functionaries of the state especially, the Governor. Amir Sahib prayed for peaceful co-existence among the people. He prayed for the progress and development of the State under the incumbent Governor.

Nine of the Jama’at’s publications were presented to his Excellency as gifts.

The Executive Governor, Engineer Abdullah Sule responded by reciting Ta’awudh and Basmallah and welcomed the leadership of the Jamaat. He said he was expecting very problematic issues when he received our request to visit him but that he was humbled and mystified when all we have come to do was to truly pay him a courtesy call and offered him Islamic literature as gifts and then prayed for him and the state. He felt elated and honoured.

The Governor said he was not a new person to Ahmadiyya as he had known Ahmadiyya many decades ago when he was in the secondary school in the 1980s as he used to pray inside our Mosque located in his town, Akwanga. Akwanga is just about 50 kilometers to Lafia, the State Capital. That the Jamaat’s mosque in Akwanga was the biggest in the area.

‘’Your College in Umaisha has hosted me twice when I went there for political campaigns and the school had produced many notable elites in the state’. He said.

He said he also came across the Jamaat ul Ahmadiyya when he went to the United States of America for studies. According to him, ‘’ Houston Texas was about 40 kilometers in length and 40 kilometers in breadth. At that time, the only Masjid I could find was the Masjid of the Ahmadiyya. I always prayed there and met Maulvi Shamshad who is now in Colorado. We are still friends till date. He kept me updated on Jama’at’s activities. I have always preached and enlightened my friends about the Jamaat Ahmadiyya as most of them are ill-informed. I know about your interpretations of most of the prophecies about the latter days and the advent of the promised messiah’’.

The Governor said he had taken part in our Jalsa Salana at Ilaro a couple of times. This fact was supported by Muallim Isah Eshemogie, who was then the Missionary at Akwanga. That the Governor was then a Managing Director of AP Petroleum before becoming the Chief Executive Officer of Dangote Group of Companies. The Muallim further narrated that it was the Governor who advised that the Jama’at would find it difficult to maintain the storey building mosque at Akwanga when it was under construction and provided funds for the roofing of our Mosque at Akwanga apart from numerous financial donations he made to the construction of the Mosque.

He appreciated the location of three of our schools in his state and humorously pointed to the Secretary to the State Government (SSG) that the three schools were in his domain but the biggest of our mosques in the state was located in his home town, Akwanga.

The Executive Governor pledged his unalloyed and undiluted support and ready to use everything within his power to assist us in our quest. He finally said, ” You don’t need to convince me about Ahmadiyya”.

The Amir and his entourage later snapped a group photograph with the Governor and the State Executive and a befitting lunch was organized for the entourage at the Presidential Lodge of the State.

He also held a series of meetings at Akwanga where the entourage offered their Salat Zuhr and ASR before proceeding to Abuja.


Amir Sahib branched at HADEEQA E AHMAD located inside Nassarawa State but under the management of Abuja Circuit. Amir has since returned to Lagos.

Report by Abbas Iromini
The General Secretary.


A NEW NIGERIA BEGINS WITH YOU – Barr. Alatoye tells Ahmadi Elders


Members of the Majlis Ansarullah Ahmadiyya Nigeria (Elders Forum of Ahmadiyya Muslim Community) have been charged to continually preach, uphold and display the beautiful teachings of Islam, thereby becoming change agents for a new Nigeria.

The Amir (National President) of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria, Alhaj (Barr.) Alatoye Folorunso Azeez gave the admonition at the 21st Annual National Workshop of the Elders Forum held at the Jamia Ahmadiyya, Owode Road, Ilaro, Ogun State.

Barrister Alatoye who expressed his displeasure over the state of affairs in the country in respect to moral decadence and human degradation believed members of the Muslim organization, especially the elderly ones have a huge role to play, to right all the wrongs in the country, starting from the home front.

He requested the elderly members to set the ball rolling by taking proper care of the family members’ needed provisions – food, clothing, and shelter, thereby building a solid family structure and by extension building a sane society devoid of social ills. The Amir emphasized on the need for the members to reform themselves internally and change the value system before striving to reform the society.


“The annual workshop is an avenue to reinvigorate and reposition ourselves morally and materially, going forward. As elderly members of the Jama’at, we have a huge role to play for a better Nigeria. Remember we are the fathers to the mothers, youths, and children. We cannot vindicate ourselves from the social vices in the country. We must all wake up from our slumber and change the history of the country.

“As fathers, we should overlook so many things as long as they do not violate Islamic principles. I receive whole lot of complaints on fathers and these are disheartening and pathetic. Let us display good behaviours to our family members, especially our wives. Our behaviours should be exemplary to others. Let us live above board.

“As Ahmadis, let us start a process of value change through the seeking of Allah’s assistance. We should take a lead in reforming society. So many people have lost faith in the Country. As Ahmadi Muslims, we should never lose faith. We should work, preach and pray for our leaders so that there will be value change. It is not by physical force but through moral and spiritual force. Escalating immoral and violent acts through religious and ethnic lines should be totally discouraged.

“Meanwhile, we do not have a monopoly of claiming superiority over others. We are all equal before Almighty God. On the overall, members of Majlis Ansarullah stand at a very strategic position to change the course of happenings in the country positively.”

Transition to Eternal Life: Islamic Perspective

Maulvi Abdus Samad Awwal who delivered the theme lecture: Transition to Eternal Life: Islamic Perspective emphasized that members should be more concerned about the hereafter rather than mundane affairs which are ephemeral in nature; hence the need to commence the cleansing of our hearts and souls.

“Our souls are our most precious possessions. Therefore, we should cherish and care for them more than any other possession. It is only part of us that does not remain in this world after death; everything else remains, only our souls, which dwell within us, enter into the life to come. It is clear therefore that our greatest concern and interest in this life should be the purification of our souls.”

Be Alive to your Responsibilities – Adeoye

Welcoming participants to the three-day program, the leader of the elders’ forum, Alhaji (Engr.) Abdul Waheed Adeoye urged members to be conscious of the onerous and challenging responsibilities before them as members of the elders’ forum.

He stated that the roles of the elderly within the family, society and the country at large cannot be over-emphasized. He admonished members to be good ambassadors of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in their respective domains.

Other Thought-Provoking Lectures

Some of the other lectures also delivered were: “The Holy Prophet (SAW) and the Institution of solat” by Muallim (Barr.) Mutiullah Akinsanya; “Darsul-Quran: Transition to Eternal Life in Relation to the Verse” by Mr. Adewale AbdurRahman; “Man is Mortal” by Magistrate Mudathir Maruf; “Will Making in Islam” by Dr. AbdulMajeed Hassan-Bello, the National President Qadha Board (Arbitration Committee); and “Lessons from the Companions of the Promised Messiah(as) with particular reference to Maulana Abdur Raheem Nayyar” by Barr. Muhammad Rizwan.

There were also Health Talks on “Prostate Gland and its complications” by Dr. Saliu AbdulWaid Niran; and “Viral Haemorrhagic Diseases with Particular Reference to Lassa Fever and Ebola Viral Disease” by Dr. Taofeek Adedayo Sanni.

Other dignitaries that attended the event include: “The Naib Amir (Deputy National President), Finance and Administration, Alhaji Mufadhil Bankole; Naib Amir Tabligh and Tajneed (Preaching and Census), Dr. Abdul Lateef Busari; Naib Amir Ta’lim and Tarbiyyat (Educational and Moral Training), Alhaji Tajudeen Onabanjo; Rtd. General Seidu Balogun (former Governor, Ogun State); former Amir, Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria, Alhaji Hussein Sunmonu; and the General Secretary, Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria, Alhaji Abbas O. Iromini.

About 700 members of the body across the country attended the workshop.

Remembering Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud – Part I


Narrated by Syed Mir Mahmud Ahmad Nasir Sahib, son-in-law of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. Al Hakam is grateful to Syed Mir Mahmud Sahib for sharing his personal recollections of a great

Syed Mir Mahmud Ahmad Nasir

A personal problem

Aside from many other reasons, it is difficult to say anything about Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud, may Allah be pleased with him, because he was a universe in himself and an ocean of knowledge. I remember his great personality and become anxious as to whether I can even describe him adequately or whether I will be able to explain his characteristics completely and draw a sufficient sketch in the minds of readers and listeners.

Given the situation, how can a person express such a vast, diverse and deep personality? This is a hurdle and I think that I will not be able to fulfill the responsibility of this article. Once, I reached for a notebook to write something, but I was not able to do it. One of the reasons was that I was afraid that I would not be able to fully introduce a great being like him. Another reason was that I could not stop my tears when remembering the compassion and kindness of his majestic personality. A personal hindrance in writing is that though I have seen Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra myself, I have also heard a lot of things in the house from my elders over an extended period of time.

Verbal accounts are equally important, but I am afraid that when people hear them from me, they will start considering them as my eyewitness accounts. Careful consideration of the narrated accounts is very necessary. In response to a man’s query about Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra while I was serving in the United States, I said that I had not witnessed any prophet with my material eyes, but the closest person I had seen to a prophet was Hazrat Mirza Bashiruddin Mahmud Ahmadra, whom I observed closely.

Love of God

Regarding Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’sra love for his Lord, I would say that people do remember God, but at times, they tend to forget Him. However, Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIra states:

سوؤں تو تجھ کو دیکھ کر، جاگوں تو تجھ پہ ہو نظر

موت سے تھا کسے دریغ، اُس کا ہی انتظار تھا

“I go to sleep looking at You [God] and when I wake, You are my focus. I am not reluctant to die because am waiting for death [so that I may meet You].” (Kalam-e-Mahmud, p. 182)

Some people used to call Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra a prophet owing to their innocence or deep affection for him. For instance, Chaudhry Ghulam Sarwar Sahib, who belonged to Sialkot, used to say that Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra did not call himself a prophet because of his humility, but people should call him a prophet. I [Syed Mir Mahmud Ahmad Nasir Sahib] have also heard one such incident that listening to similar discourses, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra said, “Some people call me a prophet, but I am certainly not a prophet,” but after a short pause he stated, “I wonder whether the love of God I have in my heart is somehow less than that of prophets?”


He had a yearning for attaining God’s love. Though I am not an eyewitness, I have also heard another incident that occurred in Qadian. Once, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra became very ill. There were frequent announcements in the newspaper and requests for prayer were made. A regular pronouncement was published by Hazrat Amma Janra that her son, Mahmudra was ill. After some time, Allah the Almighty blessed him with good health. He visited the house of Hazrat Umm-e-Tahirra for a formal meal. Food was served, but he would not eat it. In fact, he would not even pay heed towards it. His family members requested him to start eating. Then in a very unique manner, expressing great displeasure, he told his relatives upon their repeated requests, “I was sick; I was to die and meet my God I was to see Him, but you all prayed and my health was restored.”

He said this due to his passion of beholding the Divine. The narrator of the incident states that he left without eating any food.

Greatness and glory

I will now describe a bit about the feeling people used to experience when they would see Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra and the way they would observe him. To put it briefly, they used to experience a kind of grandeur, spiritual elevation, splendour, magnificence and dignity. It was as if a person was standing beneath a great mountain of the Himalayas and the mountain was about to come tumbling on them. However, looking closely, people would be filled with the certainty of affection, compassion, benevolence and kindness. This is not just my personal impression, rather just as has been said [to the Promised Messiahas]:

نُصِرْتُ بِالرعْبِ

“You have been helped with prestige”, similarly, he too had an awe-inspiring personality that was full of grandeur, glory, excellence and honour. When I imagine the pure life, prominence and magnificence of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, the following verse of the Holy Quran comes to mind:

الَّذِیۡ خَلَقَ سَبۡعَ سَمٰوٰتٍ طِبَاقًا ؕ مَا تَرٰی فِیۡ خَلۡقِ الرَّحۡمٰنِ مِنۡ تَفٰوُتٍ ؕ فَارۡجِعِ الۡبَصَرَ ۙ ہَلۡ تَرٰی مِنۡ فُطُوۡرٍ۔ ثُمَّ ارۡجِعِ الۡبَصَرَ کَرَّتَیۡنِ یَنۡقَلِبۡ اِلَیۡکَ الۡبَصَرُ خَاسِئًا وَّ ہُوَ حَسِیۡرٌ

“… Who has created seven heavens in harmony. No incongruity canst thou see in the creation of the Gracious God. Then look again: Seest thou any fl aw? Aye, look again, and yet again, thy sight will return unto thee only confused and fatigued.” (Surah al-Mulk, Ch.67: V.4-5)

For 52 years, Paighamis [otherwise known as Lahori Ahmadis] and non-Ahmadi scholars kept trying to find faults in Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra but were unable to do so. I remember one scene vividly. I was a bit late for Friday prayer. Normally, we used to reach the mosque before the arrival of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. He would come and then the muazzin would make the call to prayer. Huzoorra would wait by the pulpit and then stand up to deliver the sermon. On that specific day, I saw that the Huzoorra departed to lead the Friday prayer. There were some guards with him and some other elders of the Jamaat.

As I was also walking behind him at some distance, I noticed a civil servant. This person probably worked for the post or the telegram office and they would wear khaki uniforms in the winter season. He came on a bicycle and immediately got off when he saw Huzoorra and quickly set his bicycle up against the wall. Huzoorra did not see him and only I was watching the spectacle. The man, who was a Hindu, fell prostrate on the ground, due to the glory and radiance of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. In one of his writings, the Promised Messiahas has stated about Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra that God would send him with His Word of Majesty [“He is the Word of Allah, for Allah’s mercy and honour have equipped him with the Word of Majesty.” (Announcement, 20 February 1886)].


The third impression that I have in my heart was the extraordinary intelligence of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. You cannot even gauge the scale of Huzoor’sra intelligence. I can try and explain with the example of a light bulb, that once it is switched on, a time comes when its light goes off, but the intellect of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra was constant and kept progressing without stopping. I will relate a small incident of his intelligence.

In 1955, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra was ill and he travelled to London. At the time, I was already there and had the pleasure to prepare a house for his accommodation. Some other friends were also accompanying him … There was a person who was associated with the Jamaat and a service was entrusted to him. Later on, he abandoned the Jamaat. It took me six months to understand this person. After a whole six months, I understood the mentality of the person and what he wanted.

However, when Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra came to visit, one day, that person handed me a letter placed in an envelope, which, instead of the private secretary, he wanted me to directly deliver to Huzoorra. Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra opened the envelope, but only a little bit; he did not open it entirely. He must have seen only a small part of the letter inside and immediately, he closed the letter and told me in detail about the person’s intentions. It was the same impression which took me a full six months to assess. That person later turned out to be exactly as Huzoorra had described.

“He was a very impressive personality”

Regarding the astuteness of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, I wish to narrate the case of a non-Muslim scholar-priest. He was Kenneth Cragg whose book, The Call of the Minaret is quite famous. A few years ago, when I went to England, Asif Mahmood Basit Sahib told me that Kenneth Cragg was alive. I was surprised as I thought that he would no longer be alive. He was a very old person.

This gentleman was then living in an institution built for the elderly. I went to meet him with Asif Mahmood Basit Sahib. This author was a very well-known and renowned figure. He was also known in the intellectual circles as well as the Christian circles. Accompanied with Hazrat Sir Chaudhry Zafarulla Khan Sahibra, he once came to meet Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. I reminded Kenneth Cragg that he met Huzoorra in the year 1955. He had only one remark:

“He was a very impressive personality.”

Now, he was an elderly learned man and a famous priest who worked against Islam. His testimony about the personality of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra was that he was impressive, even though he remained in the company of Huzoorra for a very short period of time.

Knowledge of the Holy Quran

Those who have read his commentary of the Holy Quran, Tafsir-e-Kabir are well aware of this aspect of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’sra personality. It was this field in which he was a vast ocean of knowledge. Despite his illness, health and many other engagements, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra used to regularly deliver his dars [sermon] of the Holy Quran in Qadian twice a day. A trunk of already prepared notes and references was ready before the preparation of Tafsir-e-Kabir’s volumes. When conditions began to worsen during the partition of the subcontinent, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra had already recognised the course of changing circumstances with his wisdom and foresight, and a small plane had been purchased for the Jamaat. Syed Muhammad Ahmad Sahib, son of Hazrat Mir Muhammad Ismailra used to fly it.

Once, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra called him and asked, “How old are you, Muhammad Ahmad?” After hearing his reply, Huzoorra said, “A person can understand things at such an age. The trunk containing the notes of Tafsir-e-Kabir is placed right there. This is the basis of the Holy Quran’s interpretation for the next 1,000 years. Take this trunk from Qadian to Lahore by plane and there, tell Sheikh Bashir Ahmad Sahib to deposit it in a bank.

Even his rivals were convinced about this aspect. So what more can I say regarding Hazrat Musleh-e-Maud’sra knowledge of the Quran! Hard work How do I write about this and explain it? [I recall] an instance of Rattan Bagh, Lahore. Once, after Isha prayer, Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra quickly came down and Chaudhry Ishaq Sahib was keeping guard there. After the partition, there was an ordinary security arrangement, with only a couple of men available for the security duty in every shift.

Chaudhry Ishaq Sahib himself related this incident to me that Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra told him, “Ishaq, I am engaged in important work. I have to send it to London by tomorrow morning. Due to this work, I sometimes lose track of time. So do this; come upstairs every hour and remind me of the time.” Ishaq Sahib told me, “I went in at 9 o’clock and Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra was working. Again, I went in at 10 o’clock and he was working. I kept visiting him every hour, 11 o’clock, 12 o’clock, 1 o’clock, 2 o’clock, 3 o’clock and 4 o’clock – each time, I found him working. Then at 5 o’clock, Huzoorra said that it was enough and started to offer his prayers.”

On many occasions, Maulvi Abul Munir Nurul Haq Sahib had the opportunity to work with Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra. He had the privilege to be actively involved in the work of finding various references for Tafsir-e-Kabir. In one of his lectures at Jamia, he stated his observation of Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra in simple words that Huzoorra used to work all day and night, and he would only rest from 5 to 8 o’clock in the morning.

Likewise, my father, Hazrat Mir Muhammad Ishaqra was gracious to me in that many of his works that were to be presented before Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, he used to deliver them to Huzoorra through me, instead of sending them through the private secretary. He would send me to ask about specific matters. As usual, he sent me one day and as I entered, I saw Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra seated on the floor. In front of him was a pile of letters, almost two and a half feet high.

Similarly, the mother of Hazrat Mirza Tahir Ahmad, Khalifatul Masih IVrh [Hazrat Umm-e-Tahir, Syeda Maryam Begum Sahibara] was seated at a distance of two to three yards and there was a heap of letters in front of her as well. I noticed that Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra would read out a letter from the envelope, put it back in the same envelope and write the response on top of the envelope, which was later sent to the people in the form of proper responses through the staff members of the private secretariat. That day, I saw that in between the short period of time when Huzoorra would open the letter and place it back into the envelope, Hazrat Umm-e-Tahirra would read out a letter expressing that the sender had written about such and such subject and in this manner, would seek guidance from Huzoorra. Huzoorra would explain to her how to reply.

In the meanwhile, Huzoorra affectionately joked with me, listened to my father’s question and guided me in this regard. The work of correspondence continued side by side. No one should consider this description of the “piles of letters” as an exaggeration. I wish to make it clear that Hazrat Khalifatul Masih IIIrh received 55,000 letters only in the very first year of his Khilafat and that is not all; he said that he read all those letters, dictated the answers and sent replies to all of them.

Hazrat Nawab Mubaraka Begumra has stated in her poem regarding Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra:

قومِ احمد جاگ تُو بھی، جاگ اُس کے واسطے

اَن گنت راتیں جو تیرے درد میں سویا نہیں

“Wake up O ye nation of Ahmad! Wake up for that person who has not slept countless nights in your pain.”

This is the exact reality. He passed many nights without sleep. There was a non-Ahmadi who came to Qadian and later became Ahmadi; he used to publish books, like Al-WasiyyatDurr-e-Samin and Kishti-e-Nuh etc. that were permitted by Sadr Anjuman Ahmadiyya. He was a very nice person. He used to carry out very interesting discourses. When he came to Qadian before he embraced Ahmadiyyat, he said after spending some time there, “Your Mirza is a liar.”

Everyone was shocked to hear these words. They turned towards him and insistently enquired, “What do you mean by this, that Mirza Sahib lies!”

He said, “Mirza Sahib stands up to carry out a speech and tells [the audience] that he is ill; that his health is poor and then he delivers an eight-hour speech!”

I have personally heard those speeches. After offering the Zuhr and Asr prayers, the speech would begin after the recitation of the Holy Quran. It would continue until the time for Isha, and even then, the speech would continue and no one in the audience would leave the gathering.

Regarding such occasions, an elderly person expressed to Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra, “I sit down to listen to your speech. You explain a point. I listen to that point carefully. But I also have bladder issues and I am old. Thereafter, you start explaining another matter. I sit down again to hear it as well. As soon as it ends, the next one starts and I cannot leave to answer the call of nature. At last, it becomes extremely impossible [for me to hold it any longer].”

I was present at the scene when Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra was attacked with a dagger. I ran towards the house of Dr Mirza Munawar Ahmad Sahib to report the attack on Huzoorra. When Huzoorra was shifted to the upper storey of the house, I had the opportunity to serve him for some days. At that time, I remember that despite such a near fatal attack, there were only a few days before Hazrat Musleh-e-Maudra resumed his work again.

(To be continued)

(Transcribed by Tariq Hayat. Translated by Junaid Ahmad Warraich)

‘Messiah’ on Netflix: What you need to know!


Ayyaz Mahmood Khan, Islamabad, UK

Netflix has recently released a new series –  ‘Messiah.’ The lead character appears to be a religious leader or prophet-like figure who emerges from the Middle East and is referred to by some characters as Al-Masih (the Messiah).  Al-Masih performs miracles of various sorts but his arrival coincides with a series of environmental disasters accompanied by ensuing havoc and violence. As he gathers followers, a CIA agent ‘must race to unravel the mystery of whether he really is a divine entity or a deceptive con artist capable of dismantling the world’s geopolitical order.’

The series has provoked controversy and debate, especially amongst Muslims and Christians. Some Muslims have pointed out that to refer to the lead character of the series as Al-Masih (the Messiah), is to use the name by which the ‘Dajjal’, or Anti-christ, will announce himself when he appears in the latter days. Others have been outraged and described the series as offensive, blasphemous and disrespectful. A change.org petition has been launched as well describing the show as “evil and anti-Islamic propaganda.”

The creator, Michael Petroni has commented that he “doesn’t set out to offend anyone,” and goes on to say that, “there is going to be a lot of noise around the show and a lot of debate. I’m hoping for debate.” It is said that the purpose of this new series is to “imagine how modern society would react if such a figure appeared.” Netflix describes this as “a provocative and suspenseful thriller that explores the power of influence and belief in the social media age.”

The new Netflix series ‘The Messiah’ has provoked the sentiments that surround it by religious followers who believe in the second coming of the Messiah and who hold that when the Antichrist (or Dajjal) emerges, the ‘Mahdi’ would fight him in an ultimate battle between good and evil. Let us breakdown the true nature of these concepts of the ‘Messiah’, ‘Mahdi’, and ‘Dajjal’ (Antichrist).

Given the confusion, it is helpful to clarify some of the terms being used and what they really represent.

So who is the Messiah?

Muslims believe that Jesus (as), the Messiah, will appear in the latter days according to the prophecies of the Founder of Islam (sa). An overwhelming majority of non-Ahmadi Muslims believe that he physically ascended into the heavens after his Crucifixion and so he will physically descend from the sky in the latter days, with his hands on the shoulders of two angels. They believe that the Messiah will then join forces with the Imam Mahdi and wage a bloody war against the disbelievers until they convert to Islam. As a result, the Muslims would become kings and rulers.

The fact of the matter is that this grossly disfigured view of Islam couldn’t be further from the truth. It is neither supported by the Holy Quran, nor the words of the Prophet of Islam (sa). Religious adherents throughout the ages, have always enjoyed fantastical stories of people flying up into the heavens, and returning again, and overturning the world in their favour through magic spells and bloody wars, but this has never materialised in the past, nor will it in the future.

Firstly, Jesus (as), who was a prophet of God, did not physically ascend into the heavens, and so it naturally follows that, he will not descend physically in the latter days either. The Holy Quran categorically states in chapter 5 verse 118 that after Jesus (as) died his natural death, God was a watcher over his people. There is mention in Islamic literature and various source texts of the ‘descent’ of Jesus (as) in the latter days but the Arabic word ‘nuzul,’ which is used for ‘descent,’ refers to the coming of a great blessing of God Almighty, which as if, is a grace that descends from the heaven. In the Holy Quran, it is said that iron and cattle ‘descended’ from on high, and of course, all this means is that these are immense blessings of God, by which humanity benefits immensely; it does not mean that these things physically came down from the sky.

Secondly, it ought to be noted that when the Holy Quran, which is considered to be the word of God, vouchsafed to the Prophet of Islam (sa), that the Jesus (as) would die a natural death. So it is obvious that prophecies which refer to his coming in the Latter Days must be understood in a metaphoric and spiritual context.

The fact of the matter is that in light of the Holy Quran and the sayings of the Prophet of Islam (sa), the true Messiah who would appear in the latter days, would be a man that would appear as a spiritual manifestation of Jesus (as). He would be a prophet of God and possess a disposition that was similar to that of Jesus (as) and would heal the world from the wounds of sin and evil with his Messianic qualities.

Who is the ‘Imam Mahdi?’ 

Non-Ahmadi Muslims believe that the Imam Mahdi will appear from among the Muslims in the Latter Days and join forces with the Messiah . Together they will literally rid the world of Christianity, breaking every Cross around as well as ridding the world of its pig population! In the havoc and chaos that this bloody Mahdi would bring, everyone would also convert to Islam.  This is clearly  nothing more than the fabrication of warmongering clerics who incite the masses to serve their own vested interests. There is a saying of the Prophet of Islam (sa) recorded in a Hadith (saying of the Holy Prophet Muhammad (sa)), which states that when the Messiah appears in the latter days, he would put an end to religious wars. Further, the Holy Quran clearly states that there should be no compulsion in religion (2:257). So any notion about the coming of a bloodthirsty Mahdi or Messiah is diametrically opposed to the teachings of Islam.

Just one of countless examples from early Islam can demonstrate this. When the Holy Prophet (sa) returned as a victor to his birthplace Makkah after being exiled, the disbelievers had forfeited and the entire town was now in the hands of the Muslims. The people of Makkah were those who had inflicted all manner of cruelties, war crimes and persecution upon the Holy Prophet (sa) and his followers for over a decade, to the extent that the Prophet’s close family members had died as a result. Yet the Holy Prophet (sa), holding complete power to mete out any sort of revenge he wished, decided instead to forgive all his oppressors. This has been described by many non-Muslim historians as one of the greatest acts of compassion in human history.

Thus, in Islam, prophets of God bring a message of peace, not war. Breaking the Cross and killing the swine is only a metaphorical allusion to the ending of false Christian doctrines regarding the Divinity of Christ (as) and killing of ‘swine’ means ridding people of immoralities and indecencies, not the literal killing of animals!

What is the Antichrist or Dajjal?

A study of the Hadith illustrates that in the time of the Messiah and Mahdi, the Antichrist or Dajjal would appear, and that one of the primary tasks of the Messiah and Mahdi would be to kill Dajjal.

So who and what is the Dajjal? The Prophet of Islam (sa) has vividly described the characteristics of this Dajjal, which unfortunately have been misunderstood by a large number of Muslims throughout the world. This misunderstanding has arisen mainly because the characteristics of Dajjal, as expounded by the Prophet of Islam (sa) in the Hadith, have been taken literally.

There are various characteristics of Dajjal which have been mentioned in Hadith literature, in various collections. A summary of these aspects, taken from various Hadith is presented here. The Prophet of Islam (sa) is reported to have said that:

There has been no prophet who has not warned his people of the one-eyed Dajjal. Beware! He would be blind in his right eye. He would come with paradise and hell, but what he calls a paradise would be hell. The word ‘kafir’ (infidel) would be written on his forehead, and every believer, whether literate or illiterate would be able to read it.  The Dajjal would order the sky to send down water and the clouds would send down rain; he would order the earth to grow and it would grow its produce. He would cross abandoned land and order the earth to bring forth its treasures, and its treasures would come forth and begin to follow the Dajjal. He would kill a man and bring him back to life. The Dajjal would be a mountain of bread and a stream of water. –  (Sahih Bukhari, Sahih Muslim, Mishkat)

Unfortunately, without studying all of the relevant narrations which describe the Dajjal or Antichrist, Muslims have taken the few characteristics that they do know of and have understood them literally to refer to a man who would travel the world performing miracles and feats of wonder that are beyond the ability of any human being. He would be virtually unstoppable and wield a power no less than God Himself.

In reality, the Dajjal, is not one individual, wielding miraculous power, who would falsely claim to be the Messiah and fight against the true Messiah in physical battle. Dajjal is an Arabic word, which means ‘a great deceiver or liar’. Another meaning is ‘that which covers up the earth due to its abundance.’ This word also refers to that which ‘travels throughout the land, and possesses great wealth and treasure.’ Therefore, in view of these definitions, Dajjal quite plainly refers to rich and wealthy powers which cover the earth with their influence and promote evil and mislead the masses through falsehood and deception.  It is these very evil forces which all prophets of God come to destroy through goodness, piety and virtue, and with their spiritual influence. When the Messiah was to appear in the latter days, it was this very evil that he was destined to dispel from the world through his Messianic qualities.

The fact is, even a cursory glance over the aforementioned description, would make it clear that these are not characteristics which could exist in a human being. Being blind in the right eye is simply a metaphoric expression, which indicates that those powers or groups of people who promote sin and falsehood throughout the world by deception would be spiritually dead. How is it physically possible for a human being to contravene the laws of nature and make the clouds rain by a simple command? How could a human being bring a dead person to life? Basic science and common sense both reject such notions as do the laws of nature created by God Himself. And it is precisely religious views like these which turn religion into a mockery.

Where is the true Messiah? 

Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) – Promised Messiah and Mahdi

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community believes that the Messiah and Mahdi who was to appear in the present age as a prophet of God, has come in the person of their founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), who hailed from the village of Qadian, in India. Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) claimed to be a prophet of God (the Holy Prophet (sa) referred to the coming Messiah as ‘Nabi’ or prophet several times in the traditions), and the second coming of Jesus (as). He announced that he was not just a spiritual manifestation of Jesus the Messiah, but also a manifestation of all the prophets of other Faiths, and the purpose of his advent was to dispel misguidance, put an end to war and conflict, and unite humanity with a message of love and peace. The Community also holds that the Antichrist or Dajjal that was destined to emerge to fight the Messiah has also appeared, as it were, and its deceit and falsehood is prevalent in the world around us in the form of evil, sin and violence.

When Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) of Qadian claimed that he had been divinely commissioned by God to propagate His message, he confronted the evil forces of the Antichrist or Dajjal in two ways. Firstly, he corrected the false beliefs prevalent among all the religious denominations of the world through powerful and logical argumentation. As a result, he demonstrated that the religion of Islam was the only religion that could solve all the world’s problems and give true salvation to humanity. Ultimately, this is how he defeated the Antichrist known as Dajjal in Islam. He essentially dismantled the intricate web that it had woven through its deceitful ways to misguide the people and lead them away from God and towards a life of irreligiousness. Secondly, through prayer and his spiritual influence, he produced a community of followers who developed a living relationship with God and thus infused a sense of spirituality within them, and gave them the purity and piety that was required to not only transform their own lives, but the people around them as well, and in turn the whole of humanity, one generation after the next.

The writings and life history of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) are a testament to the fact that he tirelessly worked as an advocate of peace and love, and lay the framework for inter-religious harmony in the modern age. When he made his claim he was faced with fierce opposition and hostility, and threats were made on his life, but he continued to convey the peaceful message of Islam with humility and forbearance, just as Jesus (as) did in his time, and all the prophets before him. He invited people time and again to visit him in Qadian so that they could witness for themselves the signs and miracles that he manifested day in and day out. He made magnificent prophecies which were published well in advanced and then they were fulfilled in letter and spirit — many of these prophecies related to major world events, like the First World War, among other things and revolutionary changes in the fabric of society.

A community established by Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) in 1889, which began from the Punjab, India, has now spread to over 200 countries, where it continues to propagate the message of Islam, which is a message of love and mutual harmony. After the demise of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), the community is led by a divinely instituted system of Caliphate, which promotes peace and understanding throughout the world. The present spiritual head and Caliph of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community is Hazrat Mirza Masroor Ahmad (aba), who travels the world to spread this very peace and understanding. He has spoken at Parliament Hill in the United Kingdom, he has addressed Capitol Hill in Washington, and also governments and nations throughout the world to remind them of the duties that they owe to God and the responsibilities that they owe to serve humanity at large.

The Ahmadiyya Muslim Community has a track record of over 100 years where not a single member has ever been radicalised, nor has the community and its divine leadership ever stirred violence and bloodshed in the world. In fact, the divinely appointed leaders of this community, from its founder, Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as), and after him, his Caliphs have always been a beacon of light and wisdom in a dark world. Something which people from all walks of life, even those who are not members of the community, have testified to in clear terms.

‘Messiah’ the Netflix series raises some interesting issues about how  the modern world would react to a spiritual leader who claims to be the Messiah and Mahdi. The debate around it has exposed the real need to understand the Quran and Hadith and the dangers of  their literal interpretation. Those viewers  interested in finding out the truth behind the hype might want to  look at the life of  the founder of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community the true  Messiah and Mahdi of the age.

About the Author: Ayyaz Mahmood Khan is an Imam who spent seven years in the International Theological College of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Community in London where he studied the oriental languages of Persian, Arabic and Urdu as well as comparative religions specialising in colonial South Asian polemic literature of the nineteenth century. Ayyaz has produced and presented numerous television programs focusing on the interplay of modern society and religion. He has given lectures at UCL and Imperial College in areas of Shariah and the Islamic concept of the Caliphate.



[Maitawaliu Nayashi is a Hafizul Quran, a graduate of Islamic studies, and an emerging young commentator of the Quran whose weekly Tafsir al-Quran gathers considerable audience in Lokoja, Kogi State, Nigeria. Until about six months ago, he worked under me as a Tahfizul-Quran facilitator in the School of Tahfizul Quran which my humble person coordinates. The honour and respect he always accorded me throughout had very much inspired my heart with love for him in Allah, and I do hope this would be sustained, in shaa Allah.

However, on February 8th, 2020, he began to assume the duty of confronting Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) with an anti-Ahmadiyya post he pasted on his Facebook wall. As an Islamic Missionary, when it comes to matters of Islamic importance, one has no option than to prioritize objectivity over subjective considerations, for the sake of ensuring the supremacy of the substantial truth of Islam. As a result, I began to engage him with a challenge to him to provide original evidence that substantiates his assertions against Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as). The ensuing developments are what has necessitated this short piece.]

Well, it pleases, to begin with the note that, with his confession that: “I have done all my possible best,” but, “all my efforts” “in accessing some hardcopy books and other write-ups by your Spiritual Leader, Imam Mirza Ghulam Ahmad Al-Qaadiyani….proved abortive”, we would graciously spare Al-Hafiz Maitawaliu Nayashi the herculean task of scanning through the whole thousands of voluminous write-ups of Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) in search of a reference that doesn’t even exist in the first instance! My friend seemed to have only engaged in a “copy and paste” exercise. Unfortunately, it turned out as a cheque issued without any cash in the bank account to be cashed! However, we have no option than to conclude that by this confession, he has implicitly conceded to the fact that his introduction of Hazrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as “the man who claimed to be the LAST PROPHET OF ALLAH,” was a sheer spurious, fabricated, overstated and libelous assertion intended to blatantly misrepresent and, ultimately, defame Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as).

Clearly, there are many grammatical and theological differences between the two statements: “I am a prophet of Allah” and “I am the last prophet of Allah.” We hope he would be kind to himself and his hailers to withdraw (both online and offline) his unfounded and unguarded assertion and seek forgiveness of Allah for defaming a Holy Personage who has passed on to the world beyond.

Importantly, however, by unrepentantly adding that: “But, note, no doubt, it is no longer news, that the Spiritual Leader of Ahmadi’s himself and all his followers, referred to Imam Mirza Ghulam Ahmad as a Prophet and the Promised Messiah,” Mr. Maitawaliu is still very guilty of being apologetically economical with a truth that is quite substantial and whole! Honesty demands that he should have clearly added that “…and Holy Prophet Muhammad (saw), too, referred to the Promised Messiah as a prophet of Allah.” Now, I can guess he and the collective heart of the mainstream Muslims reading this line would probably be boiling with rage over this innocent truth! They probably would be reaffirming their fatwa: Wallahi, these Ahmadis are confirmed Kafirs; the “real” Muslims must not offer Salat (prayer) behind them, etc.!

Please be calm! Indeed we are here to calm you down with Quranic and Prophetic evidence, not merely with our human words. At the worst end, it may either be that you all would direct your rage against the Quran and the Holy Prophet (saw) or would submit to the superior authorities of the duo. Whichever one, we do hope that we, for the fact that we are only echoing the verdicts of the Holy Quran and the Holy Prophet (saw), should, at least, be spared of your rage and possible takfir (declaring Muslims to be non-Muslims!). Notwithstanding, Ahmadiyya cares less about mainstream Muslims’ certification of the Islamicness of Ahmadiyya or otherwise; for, they own not the copyright of Islam. Rather, it only cares about the certification of Allah, the Fountain-Head of Islam!
Now, did the Quran 33:39 declare Prophet Muhammad (saw) the Ultimate and Seal of the Prophets (Khatam an-Nabiyyeen)? “Yes”, answered Ahmadiyya, with absolute conviction of faith! But, didn’t the same Quran 4:69 declare that, based on the degree of their obedience to Allah and Muhammad, Muslims shall be among those on whom Allah has bestowed His blessings, namely, the Prophets, the Truthful, the Martyrs and the Righteous? Again, Ahmadiyya answers: “Yes, it did.” And adds that, ‘since Allah has been fulfilling this assurance through Muslims’ attaining the other three ranks of the truthful, the martyrs and the righteous over the ages, in like manner, any highly obedient Muslim can actually attain such a rank of an ordinary, non-independent, follower-prophet, without new religion and law (Shariah).

Of course, some mainstream Muslim scholars are wont to myopically explain away this Allah’s assurance in the verse with reference to some traditional narrations about the occasion of its revelation, oblivious of the fact that the clear and vast implications of the Quranic verses and words cannot be limited exclusively to and by some authenticated or unauthenticated and, sometimes, variant narrations.

Be the foregoing as it may, an important question is: is Ahmadiyya the first and only proponent of this interpretation of the verse in the Muslim Ummah? The answer is an emphatic ‘no’! Ahmadiyya’s interpretation of the verse finds support from eminent classical and modern Muslim commentators of the Quran and Hadith like al-Shaikh al-Akbar Muhyideen ibn Arabi in both his al-Futuhat al-Makkiyya (p.177-178) and Fusus al-Hikam (p. 134-135), Jalaludin Abdur-Rahman ibn Abu Bakar al-Suyuti in his al-Durr al-Manthur fee al-Tafsir al-Mathur (vol. 5, p. 386), AbdulKarim ibn Ibrahim al-Jaili in his al-Insan al-Kamil (vol. 1, p. 115), Abdul-Wahab al-Shirani in his al-Yawaqit wa al-Jawahir (vol. 2, p. 39), Hujjatul Islam, Shah Waliyullah al-Dahlawi in his al-Tafheemaat al-Ilahiyya (vol2, p.85), and Abu Hayyan Muhammad Yusuf al-Andalusi in his al-Bahr al-Muhit fee al-Tafsir (vol. 3, p. 699), etc.

For brevity, we will only quote from the last two Imams, the rest can be read in the screenshots of the relevant pages of the respective quoted original works as attached to this post.

Commenting on Quran 4:69, Abu Hayyan maintained: “The word of Allah, “among those whom Allah has favoured” refers to “the path of those on whom You have bestowed Your favour.” It is evident that the Words of Allah, “Among the Prophets,” explanation is the “whom Allah has favoured.” “Whoever among you obeys Allah and the Messenger, Allah would include him among those who had been favored earlier. Imam Raghib has said, that He will include them in four groups, in accordance with the rank and reward i.e. Prophets with Prophets, Truthful with Truthful, Martyr with Martyr and Righteous with Righteous. Imam Raghib has declared permissible that the Prophets of this Ummah be included among the Prophets in accordance with the Words of Allah: “And whosoever obeys Allah and the Messenger” This means – among the Prophets.” (al-Bahr al-Muhit, vol. 3, p. 699)
Similarly, Imam Shah Waliyullah al-Dahlawi declared, ”The cessation of prophethood with the Holy Prophet (saw) means that there can be no divinely inspired reformer after him who would be commissioned with a new law by Allah, the Gracious, for mankind.” (al-Tafheemaat al-Ilahiyyah, vol. 2, p.85)
More so, while predicting the advent of the Promised Messiah, didn’t Prophet Muhammad (saw) (who is the Seal of the Prophets and who knew the implications of the title more than the Muslim scholars) himself referred to the Promised Messiah as a Prophet of Allah in not less than FOUR TIMES within a single authentic Hadith? He referred to him thus: “Isa the Prophet of Allah and his companions will be besieged…then, Isa, the Prophet of Allah, and his companions will turn to Allah…then, Isa, the Prophet of Allah and his companions will invade the camps of the enemy…and finally, Isa, the Prophet of Allah, and his companions will turn to Allah.”(Sahih Muslim, vol.4, kitab al-fitan wa ashrat al-sa’ah)

Based on this, if truly Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (based on divine evidence) is the Promised Messiah, why should he and those who profess his truth among Muslims be adjudged unorthodox for referring to him as a prophet? Here, I can, again, guess that they will be shaking their heads in denial that Mirza Ghulam Ahmad is the Promised Messiah, for the “real” Promised Messiah they are expecting is that same Jewish Messiah of old, Isa son of Maryam (as), whom they believed has not died but physically ascended to heaven and would return to this world in the end time and join the Muslim Ummah to launch their global bloody military Jihad against unbelievers!

From the foregoing, it is clear that many things are wrong with the collective religious psychology and understanding of our dear mainstream Muslim Ummah. And, as we shall expose in the following lines, it would be seen why we humbly recommend that our mainstream Muslim fellows need to allow the Promised Messiah that has come with the divine light of prophethood to help them reconstruct and recrystallize the blurred theological construction of their traditional Islamic faith. Can they make any sense from the following highlights?

Firstly, while responding to a post on his Facebook wall, Maitawaliu declared: “it is generally agreed by the entire Muslims that Muhammad (PBUH) is the Leader of the messengers, and seal of all prophets, so for someone affirming prophethood to himself, irrespective of the linguistic meaning used in interpreting prophethood, he’s indirectly informing the public that, Muhammad is not the seal of prophet.”

However, it is surprising to note that, while declaring that Prophet Muhammad (saw) is the Last Prophet in this world, he and his fellow mainstream Muslims concurrently believe that the Messiah, Prophet Isa (as), will still come back from heaven after Muhammad (saw). On the one hand, they are reprobating the belief about any prophethood after Muhammad, while, at the same time, approbating the same belief! That’s not merely a sheer paradox, but a folly par excellence! More interestingly, while it’s not unusual to hear many of them saying that Isa (as) would descend not as a prophet, but as an ordinary Alim or scholar (Hausa, Mallam; Yoruba, Alfa), however, when they are further exposed to the fact that Muhammad (saw) had referred to the Promised Messiah as a prophet (as quoted above), they would get fixated and stuck in the whirlpool of an intriguing dilemma! Should they obdurately persist in believing and expecting the descent of Isa (as) as a prophet or discard the erroneous notion?

Secondly, in spite of the fact that they are quite aware that the old Jewish Messiah, Jesus Christ (as), had declared in the Bible that: “But he answered and said, I am not sent but unto the lost sheep of the house of Israel” (Matthew. 15:24); and the Quran confirmed the declaration that: “And will make him a Messenger to the children of Israel” (Quran, 3:50), they still couldn’t find it aberrant that a Prophet meant for the Jewish nation, the Israelites, should come back to this world after Muhammad (saw) and join the Muslim Ummah, thereby acquiring the status of a universal prophet which is Muhammad’s (saw) exclusive reserve and indicator of his (saw) superiority. By that, Prophet Isa (as) would not only break Muhammad’s finality of prophethood, but, also his (saw) superiority, as he (saw) had declared: “I have been exclusively made superior over the prophets with six distinctions,” among which is that “every prophet was sent to his nation, but I have been sent to all mankind.” (Sahih Muslim). Here, can the mainstream Muslim scholars and adherents now realise the folly of their expectation ancient Prophet Isa’s (as) advent within the global Ummah (world) of Islam?

Thirdly, despite their acclaimed extensive study of the Prophetic Traditions (ahadith) and its science, they are collectively oblivious of the fact that our Prophet Muhammad’s (saw) Traditions clearly indicate that, though the person to come is given the title of Messiah, his personality would be different from the personality of the ancient Jewish Messiah, Isa son of Maryam (as), who died hundreds of years before Muhammad (saw). The two Traditions that give different descriptions of the Messiah, indicating they are two different personalities sharing the same title are as follow:

(1) Regarding Isa (as), the ancient Jewish Messiah, Ibn Umar (ra) has narrated, the Holy Prophet (saw) said: I saw Jesus, Moses, and Abraham (on the night of my ascension to the heaven), Jesus was of RED COMPLEXION, AND CURLY HAIR AND A BROAD CHEST.”

(2) Regarding the Muslim Messiah for our end times, Muhammad (saw) said: “And I saw tonight in a dream near the Ka’ba, a MAN OF BROWN COLOUR, the best one can see among brown colour, and HIS HAIR WERE SO LONG that it fell between his shoulders and water was trickling from his head and he was placing his hands on the shoulders of two men while circumambulating the Ka’bah. I asked: who is this? They replied this is Messiah son of Maryam” (Sahih Bukhari, vol. 2, Kitab Ahadith al-Anbiya, Hadith no. 3438 and no. 3439).

If our mainstream Muslim fellows are still disagreeing with Ahmadiyya for believing in a Messiah different from the ancient Jewish Messiah, then it is Muhammad (saw) they are contending with!

Fourth, despite their claim of religious scholarship, mainstream Muslims still could not understand and appreciate that even Jesus son of Maryam (as) himself had given verdict that whenever it’s predicted that a person that ascended to heaven would come back to this world, it’s invariably another person that is meant to come, bearing the same characteristics and mission of the person people are expecting to come from heaven. For instance, the Bible declared that, “And Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven;” (2 Kings 2:11) and promised that, “Behold I will send you Elijah the Prophet before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord,” (Malachi 4:5). Based on this, the Jewish nation was expecting Elijah to descend from heaven before the advent of Messiah, Isa son of Maryam (as). This was why, when Jesus Christ (as) appeared as the Messiah, Bible says: “And his disciples asked him, saying, Why then say the scribes that Elias must first come? And Jesus answered and said unto them, Elias truly shall first come, and restore all things. But I say unto you, That Elias has come already, and they knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Likewise shall also the Son of man suffer of them. Then the disciples understood that he was spake unto them of John the Baptist,” (Matthew 17:10-13). Also, he said: “For all the prophets and the law prophesied until John. And if ye will receive it, this is Elias, which was for to come. He that hath ears to hear, let him hear.” (Matt. 11:13-15). Unfortunately, the Jewish Pharisees’ and Sadducees’ scholars and masses who had ears refused to hear, rather, they obstinately continue to hold on to their belief and expectation of the physical descent of Elijah or Elias from heaven up till now, about 2,000 years later!

The bottom line here is that, just as John the Baptist or Prophet Yahya (as) was born on earth to live and work in the capacity and characteristics of Elijah or Elias, the same way, the Messiah for the Muslim was not to descend from heaven, rather, was to be born on earth and grow up to work in the capacity and characteristics of Isa the Messiah (as). And that person had been born, worked and passed away. Unfortunately, like the Jews, mainstream Muslims knew him not, but have done unto him whatsoever they listed. Would Maitawaliu and his fellow mainstream Muslims make sense of the verdict given by the same Jesus Christ (as) himself and stop expecting the same Jesus Christ (as) of old to descend from heaven?

Fifth, Mallam Maitawaliu and his fellow mainstream Muslims had learned by heart the famous Prophetic Hadith that goes thus: “Soon shall it come upon my Ummah (Muslim world) what came upon the children of Israel so much resembling themselves as one side of a pair of shoe resembles the other, to the extent that if there be a Jew who had committed incest with his mother, there would be among my Ummah who would commit the same.” (Sunan al-Tirmidhi, kitab al-Iman, chapter 18; vol. 5, p. 26). Does the fact of mainstream Muslims’ rejection of their earthly born Promised Messiah, Hadhrat Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (as) signal their resemblance with the children of Israel?
Here, we shall take a halt, for the sake of brevity.

However, it’s important to note that, with this humble write-up, this humble one feels confident that he has discharged his duty of faith to his brothers in faith. What better way to end therefore than to submit in Quranic style thus: “Therein, verily, is a reminder for him who has a heart, or who gives ear, and is attentive” (Quran, 50:38).



On the 8th of February 2020, the female body of the Ahmadiyya Muslim Jama’at Nigeria, Lajna Imaillah organized her annual National Tarbiyya Seminar at the Jama’at headquarters in Ojokoro, Lagos State.

The seminar was the 8th edition since the programme started in 2012. The theme of this year’s edition is “Say no to violence against women and girls”.

The program started with the recitation from the Holy Quran and Qaseeda was immediately followed by the introduction of guests and lecturers to the high table.

The Chairperson of the event, Sadr Lajna Imaillah Nigeria, Sister Taofeeqa Fagbolade, said, the key to all greatness and the prerequisites to all success lies in obedience to Almighty Allah and His Representatives on earth. She assured participants that so many success stories of men and prophets have been linked to obedience and total submission to Almighty Allah.

She then advised all Lajna members to make it a point of duty to frequently write to the Khalifa as he is willing and eager to hear from members of the Jama’at wherever they are.

The theme of the seminar was an interactive session chaired by counselor Durojaiye Khadijat with two other professionals. The counseling experts warned that most homes are going through a traumatic phase due to neglect and overzealousness for material wealth on the part of mothers.

According to these experts, violence in the home comes in the form of sexual abuse, verbal abuse, physical and emotional abuse. They, however, advised mothers to be more proactive in the care of their children and to learn to speak to appropriate authorities when they notice or experience any anomalies in their children.

Participants were also allowed some questions and to make contributions based on their experiences.

Other key programmes were paper presentations on “The key to greatness” by Sister Saidat Olajide and “Child mortality and morbidity; causes, prevention, and control ” by Dr. Mutiat Ayeteru from Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, LASUTH.

Another highlight of the seminar was the presentation and teaching of skills to the benefit of the participants by the creative and handcraft department of Lajna Imaillah Nigeria.

The event was declared a success as programmes went according to plan. The event recorded close to 800 participants from across the country.

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